Michael J. Beran, Ph.D.
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September 1, 2021



Beran, M. J., Pate, J. L., Washburn, D. A., & Rumbaugh, D. M. (2004). Sequential responding and planning in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 30, 203-212.

Chimpanzees and rhesus macaques selected either Arabic numerals or colored squares on a computer monitor in a learned sequence. On shift trials, the locations of two stimuli were interchanged at some point in the trial. More errors were made when this interchange occurred for the next two stimuli to be selected than when the interchange was for stimuli later in the sequence. On mask trials, all remaining stimuli were occluded after the first selection. Performance exceeded chance levels for only one selection after these masks were applied. There was no difference in performance for either stimulus type (numerals or colors). The data indicated that the animals only planned the next selection during these computerized tasks as opposed to planning the entire response sequence.

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