Michael J. Beran, Ph.D.
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September 1, 2021



Harris, E. H., Beran, M. J., & Washburn, D. A. (2007). Ordinal list integration for symbolic, arbitrary, and analog stimuli by rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Journal of General Psychology, 134, 183-197.

Two numeral-trained monkeys learned to produce 3 5-item lists of Arabic numerals, colors, and arbitrary signs in the correct sequence. The monkeys then responded at above-chance levels when the authors tested them with nonrewarded pair-wise comparisons of items from different lists, indicating their use of ordinal-position information. The authors also tested the monkeys with nonrewarded pair-wise comparisons of an analog quantity and an item from 1 of the 3 learned lists. Although the monkeys were not trained to serially order analog quantities, 1 monkey correctly integrated the analog quantities with the lists of numerals, colors, and signs. The consistent use of an ordinal rule, despite different types of training and varying degrees of experience with the 4 types of stimuli, suggested that the monkey had a robust concept of ordinality.

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